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Similarly, through encapsulation the methods and variables of a class are well hidden and safe. We can achieve encapsulation in Java by: Declaring the variables of a class as private. Providing public setter and getter methods to modify and view the variables values. We have then created a getter and setter methods through which we can get and set the name of an employee. Through these methods, any class which wishes to access the name variable has to do it using these getter and setter methods.
Object Oriented Programming : Abstraction Abstraction refers to the quality of dealing with ideas rather than events.
It basically deals with hiding the details and showing the essential things to the user. If you look at the image here, whenever we get a call, we get an option to either pick it up or just reject it. But in reality, there is a lot of code that runs in the background. Therefore, abstraction helps to reduce complexity.
Now what does the abstract keyword mean? If a class is declared abstract, it cannot be instantiated, which means you cannot create an object of an abstract class.
Also, an abstract class can contain abstract as well as concrete methods. In an interface, each method is public and abstract but it does not contain any constructor. So an interface basically is a group of related methods with empty bodies. But their working is going to be different. Therefore, not all my subclasses have the same logic written for change gear.
But suppose, someone else is driving a super car, where it increment by 30kms or 50kms. Again the logic varies. Similarly for applybrakes, where one person may have powerful brakes, other may not. After that, I will create a child class which implements this interface, where the definition to all these method varies. SpeedUp ; A6. Implementing an interface allows a class to become more formal about the behavior it promises to provide. So I hope you guys are clear with the interface and how you can achieve abstraction using it.
Finally, the last Object oriented programming concept is Polymorphism. It is the ability of a variable, function or object to take on multiple forms.
In other words, polymorphism allows you define one interface or method and have multiple implementations. Fast bowlers, Medium pace bowlers and spinners. As you can see in the above figure, there is a parent class- BowlerClass and it has three child classes: FastPacer, MediumPacer and Spinner.
Bowler class has bowlingMethod where all the child classes are inheriting this method. As we all know that a fast bowler will going to bowl differently as compared to medium pacer and spinner in terms of bowling speed, long run up and way of bowling, etc.
And same happens with spinner class. This will happen by the time when we retrieve data from database. Subscribe to our youtube channel to get new updates..!
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A JOIN selects columns from 2 or more tables. Q26 What is the Referential Integrity? Referential integrity refers to the consistency that must be maintained between primary and foreign keys, i. It updates information about the distribution of key values for one or more statistics groups collections in the specified table or indexed view.
It returns the most recently created identity value for the tables in the current execution scope. Then, of course, there is the security aspect, where, by building a stored procedure, you can place a great deal of security around it.
SQL Server Interview Questions
When dealing with sensitive data, you can use an encrypted stored procedure to hide sensitive columns, calculations, and so on. Finally, by using a stored procedure, I feel that transactional processing becomes a great deal easier and, in fact, using nested transactions become more insular and secure.
Having to deal with transactions within code that may have front end code, will slow up a transaction and therefore a lock will be held for longer than necessary. Q30 What are some techniques for writing fast performing stored procedures? Fast performing stored procedures are like several other areas within T-SQL. Revisiting stored procedures every six months or so, to ensure that they are still running at their optimum performance is essential.
However, actual techniques themselves include working with as short a transaction area as possible, as lock contention will certainly impact performance. Recompiling your stored procedures after index additions if you are unable or not wishing to restart SQL Server, will also ensure that a procedure is using the correct index, if that stored procedure is accessing the table which has received the new index. If you have a T-SQL command that joins several tables, and it takes a long time to return a value, first of all check out the indexes.
But what you may find tends to help, is to break down the code and try to determine which join it is that is causing the performance problem. Then analyze this specific join and see why it is a problem.
Also, try to look at using sub queries when you are trying to find a handful of values in the sub query statement, and there is no key on the column you are looking up on. SQL Server cursors are perfect when you want to work one record at a time, rather than taking all the data from a table as a single bulk. However, they should be used with care as they can affect performance, especially when the volume of data increases.
There will be times when it is not possible to avoid cursors, and I doubt if many systems exist without them. If you do find you need to use them, try to reduce the number of records to process by using a temporary table first, and then building the cursor from this.
The lower the number of records to process, the faster the cursor will finish. In other words, how can developers perform the same function as a cursor without using a cursor?
Perhaps one of the performance gains least utilized by developers starting out in SQL Server are temporary tables.
For example, using one or more temporary tables to break down a problem in to several areas could allow blocks of data to be processed in their own individual way, and then at the end of the process, the information within the temporary tables merged and applied to the underlying data.
The main area of your focus should be, is there an alternative way of doing things? Even if I have to break this down into several chunks of work, can I do this work without using cursors, and so result in faster performance. Another area that you can look at is the use of CASE statements within your query.
By using a CASE statement, you can check the value within a column and make decisions and operations based on what you have found.
Although you will still be working on a whole set of data, rather than a subset found in a cursor, you can use CASE to leave values, or records as they are, if they do not meet the right criteria. Care should be taken here though, to make sure that by looking at all the data, you will not be creating a large performance impact. Again, look at using a subset of the data by building a temporary table first, and then merging the results in afterwards.
Cursors can be faster if you are dealing with small amounts of data. However, what I have found, to be rule number one, is get as little data in to your cursor as is needed. Q33 If you have no choice but to use a SQL Server-based cursor, what tips do you have in order to optimize them? Perhaps the best performance gain is when you can create a cursor asynchronously rather than needing the whole population operation to be completed before further processing can continue.
Then, by checking specific global variables settings, you can tell when there is no further processing to take place. However, even here, care has to be taken. Asynchronous population should only occur on large record sets rather than those that only deal with a small number of rows.
Use the smallest set of data possible. Break out of the cursor loop as soon as you can. If you find that a problem has occurred, or processing has ended before the full cursor has been processed, then exit. If you are using the same cursor more than once in a batch of work, and this could mean within more than one stored procedure, then define the cursor as a global cursor by using the GLOBAL keyword, and not closing or deallocating the cursor until the whole process is finished.
A fair amount of time will be saved, as the cursor and the data contained will already be defined, ready for you to use. This is a very open ended question and there could be lot of reasons behind the poor performance of a query. But some general issues that you could talk about would be: No indexes Missing or out of date statistics Blocking Excess recompilations of stored procedures Q35 What is an ER Diagram? An ER diagram or Entity-Relationship diagram is a special picture used to represent the requirements and assumptions in a system from a top down perspective.
It shows the relations between entities tables in a database.
Q36 What is a prime attribute? A prime attribute is an attribute that is part of a candidate key.
[Read] PDF The Ultimate C: Concepts, Programs and Interview Questions New Reales
Q37 What are the properties of a transaction? The ACID properties. Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. Q38 What is a non-prime attribute? A non-prime attribute is an attribute that is not a part of a candidate key. Q39 What is Atomicity? This means the transaction finish completely, or it will not occur at all. Q40 What is Consistency? Consistency means that the transaction will repeat in a predictable way each time it is performed.
Q41 What is Isolation? The data the transactions are independent of each other. Q42 What is Durability?
Guarantees that the database will keep track of pending changes so that the server will be able to recover if an error occurs.Both functions will accept a character input value from the user. Awesome Post! This is used to insert a new line when displaying data in the output screen. A record is made up of related fields. It always requires inheritance in Method Overriding. Some programmers prefer this method as a way of organizing codes to make it look clearer, especially in conditional statements.
Simply put, commands that you use in C programming are actually functions that are defined from within each header files. C, while object codes are saved with the file extension.
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