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The whole Vedanta philosophy is summarized in a statement “Brahman is true, the The Upanisad uses the world “Atman” to mean Brahman. Atman is the. ac brahman pdf download. Quote. Postby Just» Tue Aug 28, am. Looking for ac brahman pdf download. Will be grateful for any help! Top. Brahman, and Senepol cows in a subtropical environment1,2,3. P. Alvarez*, L. J. R. E. Stewart*, A. C. Hammond†,5, T. A. Olson§, and R. P. Wettemann*.

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Marsha Read. Marjorie Stevenson. Cite Citation. PCA results offered additional insight into the different hierarchies of genetic variation structuring. The first principal component was strongly correlated with Angus—Brahman proportions, and the second represented variation within animals that have a relatively more extended Brangus lineage—indicating the presence of a distinct pattern of genetic variation in these cattle. Although there was strong agreement between breed proportions estimated from pedigree and genetic information, there were significant discrepancies between these two methods for certain animals.

Comparison with a supervised analysis where purebreds are used as the training set suggest that accurate predictions can be achieved even in the absence of purebred population information. The combined effect of high ambient temperature and humidity, increased abundance of parasitic and parasite-transmitted diseases, and nutritional lower quality pastures has a negative effect on growth rate and reproductive performance on Taurine Bos taurus beef cattle breeds of European origin Burrow, Crossbreeding between European Taurine and Zebu Bos indicus breeds is a common strategy used to enhance beef production in tropical and subtropical areas Lamy et al.

These crossbreds combine the production performance of Taurine cattle with the tropical adaptation of Zebu cattle, and usually outperform purebred cattle from the parental breeds in subtropical conditions due to heterosis Burrow, Angus—Brahman crosses are typically better suited for beef production than other Zebu—Taurine combinations in subtropical parts of the United States Chase et al.

Whether a particular Taurine—Zebu combination is optimal depends on the specific production environment under consideration. It has been suggested Cundiff et al.


Having accurate knowledge of breed composition is essential in evaluating the adaptability of crossbreds to a given production environment Kuehn et al. Pedigree information is conventionally used to determine breed composition in crossbred cattle Frkonja et al. However, the reliability of pedigree-based estimation of breed composition can be compromised by missing, inaccurate, or incomplete records Vanraden and Cooper, In addition, Mendelian sampling during gametogenesis can lead to deviations from the breed composition expected from the pedigree Kuehn et al.

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Using genomic data to determine breed composition is superior to using pedigree records as it was shown to be more accurate whilst not being prone to missing, incomplete, or inaccurate records Kuehn et al. Another use of genomic information could be independent authentication of breed in breed-labeled beef products Wilkinson, Disadvantages of using genomic data may include genotyping cost and the need for more advanced technical expertise, but both are decreasing in importance as genetic and genomic methods are becoming widely adopted and increasingly accessible Wiggans et al.

The increasing availability of core sequencing facilities at academic and research institutes, combined with the availability of affordable genotyping services from biotech companies, are likely to improve the accessibility and feasibility of using genomic information to determine breed composition Gould, ; Bauck, Genotyping cost can also be further reduced by only genotyping breed-informative markers Wilkinson et al.

Using a small number of carefully selected breed-informative markers is also advantageous in that it minimizes statistical noise coming from other markers whose frequency has been affected by demographic events that are not relevant to breed membership inference Wilkinson et al. The goal of the current study was to determine genomic breed composition while accounting for familial relationships in a group of cattle with substantial presence of such relationships, and in the process, demonstrate the effect of familial relationships on population structure and genomic breed composition inferences.

The objectives of the study were to 1 use genomic data to detect population structure due to differences in breed composition by means of parametric and non-parametric methods while accounting for the confounding effect of close familial relationships, and 2 compare breed composition inferred from genomic data with breed composition derived from pedigree.

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This herd was constructed using a diallel crossbreeding scheme, where six groups of sires with different proportions of Angus and Brahman, as determined from pedigree records, were reciprocally mated with six dam groups which were classified in the same manner as the sires Komender, ; Elzo and Wakeman, Sire group 3 represents Brangus cattle, which is technically a separate breed.

However, since Brangus is a composite breed derived from Angus and Brahman, the Brangus cattle and their progeny were considered as crossbreds between the two parental breeds as recommended by Kuehn et al. Several quality control QC measures were applied to genotype data at the animal and marker level Anderson et al.

The extent of linkage disequilibrium LD was evaluated by observing LD decay as a function of genomic physical distance. Markers in high LD were then pruned with window size of 5, kb, step size of 10 bp, and LD threshold of 0. Selection of Unrelated Animals In both model-based analysis and principal component analysis PCA , efforts to identify population structure due to differences in breed composition can be biased by the presence of close familial relationships and shared recent ancestry among the sample set being analyzed Patterson et al.

These type of confounding relationships among animals were expected in these data. To account for such sources of confounding in both model-based analysis and PCA, the population structure identified in a subset of unrelated samples was used as a reference when inferring genomic breed composition for the rest of the samples.

A subset of mutually unrelated animals that is representative of overall population structure in the entire sample set was identified using an algorithm described by Conomos et al. This algorithm utilizes a pairwise kinship matrix estimated by the KING-robust method Manichaikul et al. Unlike kinship estimation methods which assume a homogeneous population with no structure e.

Moreover, when applied to a set of samples with heterogeneous breed ancestry, the KING-robust method gives a systematically biased negative estimate termed divergence for a given pair of unrelated samples with different breeds of origin. Samples in the unrelated set were selected to have pairwise kinship coefficients of less than 0.

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Subgroup memberships were considered as breed membership, and pedigree information was used to identify the breed associated with a subgroup. Estimates of genomic breed composition and marker allele frequency were obtained from the Q and F matrices. The accuracy of the genomic breed-composition estimation using the maximum likelihood model of ADMIXTURE depends on the extent to which several underlying assumptions are met.

The sampling scheme employed in the current study ensures adequate representation of both Angus and Brahman, whereas the LD pruning step performed as part of QC is expected to minimize the effect of widespread admixture LD in the sample set Alexander et al. ADMIXTURE was first run in unsupervised mode on the unrelated subset, and breed allele frequencies estimated from this run were then used as inputs for a supervised run on the related set in supervised mode.Close mobile search navigation Article navigation.

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