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Sure enough, Rhapsody includes these revamped apps from the get-go. The first build of Rhapsody was released to developers in August of , about seven months after the acquisition closed. Multitasking was very different. Menuing was very different.

It even built upon some NeXT features like menus you could tear off and float onscreen. The solution? Apple was going to port the legacy Mac OS toolbox into a new compatibility library, called Carbon, and make it the linchpin of the consumer Mac OS X experience.

Even in , Apple knew they wanted consumer Rhapsody to be something special. It had a few tentpole changes: they would replace the kernel and driver model, replace Display PostScript rendering with the PDF-based Quartz, deeply integrate Carbon and make legacy Mac apps first-class citizens, and adopt a brand new UI called Aqua.

Apple needed to show developers that Carbon was going to be a real and valid way forward, not just a temporary stopgap, so they committed to using Carbon for the Mac OS X Finder. The Carbon version of Finder was introduced in Mac OS X Developer Preview 2, before Aqua was revealed; it acted a bit more like NeXT's, in that it had a single root window File Viewer that had a toolbar and the column view, but secondary windows did not.

We were into year three of Apple's transition to NeXT technology, but Apple was now on a path to finding what 'Mac-like' should be, rather than trying to match what it was in classic Mac OS. Apple had a better understanding of what it wanted to do with navigation in Finder, but elements of the UI were still comically oversized.

Mail, the same Mail as we saw earlier in this piece, now looks very different indeed, but still betrays its NeXT roots with the iconography in its preferences window. But clearly, it looks very similar to the Carbon-based Finder; as you can see, both environments were starting to come together into something new, with a shared design language.

Mac OS X shipped to consumers in , and was refined massively from this first implementation of Aqua. In , Apple got the chance for a complete do-over of Mac OS X with a modern architecture optimized for touchscreen devices with powerful GPUs, but with thermal, resource, and battery constraints.

That do-over was, of course, iPhone OS. As technology has progressed, UIKit and the devices it powers have become more and more complex, and powerful.

With macOS This is the start of Apple's next transition, and just like last time, it's almost unfathomably difficult to see how these two completely different architectures will cooperate and find common ground. Just like last time, we'll start with baby steps: UIKit adopting the metrics and styles of macOS, AppKit adopting some of the interactions of iOS, and the two sides growing closer over time by sharing more and more DNA.

But just like last time, the road ahead is much longer than we can see from this perspective; we're building towards what comes next, even if we don't yet know what that is. A really interesting question we probably won't have an answer to for years to come is whether UIKit is the 'Carbon' or the 'Cocoa' of this transition.

I think the only appropriate answer is 'yes'. UIKit is the present, and the developer ecosystem it will bring with it is incredibly important. AppKit is also the present, and it provides and powers the Mac as we know it. If AppKit still has eighteen years left ahead of it, I think the Mac will be just fine. I think everybody can agree the unified whole was much greater than the sum of its parts, but this was not clear at all in The future is still being written, and we each, 'Mac developers' and 'iOS developers' alike, will get to be there to help shape it.

Needs more cowbell. Since then, Bitcode has proven instrumental in the seamless overnight transition of watchOS to bit, where developers didn't even need to recompile their apps on the store as Apple did it transparently for them so they could run on the Apple Watch Series 4. You likely didn't even notice a transition had taken place. What is Bitcode? Well, bitcode with a small b- is an architecture-specific intermediate representation used by LLVM, and capital-B Bitcode pertains to a set of features allowing you to embed this representation in your Mach-O binary and the mechanisms by which you can provide it to Apple in your App Store submissions.

It's not as flexible as source code, but it's far more flexible than a built binary, with metadata and annotations for the compiler. In practice, you or Apple can easily take the Bitcode blobs from your app and recompile them into a fully-functioning copy of your app. Going from armv7 to armv7s, or arm64 to arm64e is a piece of cake, and saves developers having to recompile an ever-fatter binary of their own every time Apple tweaks their ARM chips. Bitcode has long-since been used by Apple in its OpenGL drivers such that the driver can optimize on the fly for the various GPU architectures Apple supports.

We have seen Microsoft use static recompilation to great effect on Xbox One, giving it access to a whole library of originally-PowerPC Xbox games, all without developer intervention or access to the source code.

And that's without an intermediary like Bitcode to trivialize the process. Of course, the specter of macOS on ARM has been in the public psyche for many years now, and many have pondered whether Bitcode will make this transition more straightforward. The commonly held belief is that Bitcode is not suited to massive architectural changes like moving between Intel and ARM.

I was unconvinced, so I decided to test the theory! Firstly, we need an Objective-C Hello World app with Bitcode; Bitcode is usually only included when building an archive for the App Store, so we need to force its inclusion in a regular build.

Bitcode doesn't seem to be embedded in arm64e builds i. Using a tool called ebcutil , you can very easily extract all the Bitcode objects from your compiled binary. You should be able to drop it directly into an iOS Simulator window to install and verify it runs.

Oh no, there's been an error

This is a very important proof: you can statically translate binaries between Intel and ARM if they include Bitcode. It really works! Certain kinds of Blocks, like completion handlers, also seem to trip up the compiler with instructions it refuses to accept; if you see an X87 error this is likely your issue. Why Objective-C?

Well Swift was designed with ARC in mind and thus I dont believe there is a way to avoid the aforementioned inline assembly, so recompilation will fail currently. That was easy! This means, in theory, that if Apple wanted every iOS app on the App Store to run on the Mac, today or in the future, they have a mechanism to do so transparently and without needing developers to update or recompile their apps.

Well, as you can see, Apple could use Bitcode to translate every Bitcode-enabled app on the Mac App Store, without consulting developers, so it would be ready to go on day one. I should have done this way sooner. Encoded at a medium bitrate, a p movie in H. This adds up in a hurry, and gobbles storage like nothing else. Ripping takes time —did you want this all in a RAID to preserve your labor if a drive dies? What about hooking the machine to a television, eschewing an Apple TV in one location altogether?

Some models are easy to do this with, and some aren't. Time Machine backups?

Better give everybody a terabyte. You've got to consider random file dumping by members of the household too. What you want can get expansive, expensive, and out of control in a hurry.

This can be pared down to Part Two: What do you need? On that Text Edit document is probably a dozen uses, possibly mandating a server farm, a kilowatt of power, geothermal cooling, and a dedicated cooling water supply drawn from the local aquifer. None of these are cheap. Time to prioritize. In a studio apartment? Maybe the music doesn't have to move off your primary work machine.

Video mostly from iTunes? Maybe you don't need to store it locally at all. That Time Machine backup? Maybe, maybe not. This assessment is different in every use case.

For example, in our case, we've hosted Time Machine backups on and off again. We started doing them on the server when Time Machine launched over wi-fi, for no other reason than we could. At launch, Time Machine over wireless was terribly slow, and a burden on network resources and overall speed, so we stopped. When we upgraded to Cat-6 cabling and better gigabit Ethernet switches, all of a sudden, Time Machine backups happened at a better-than-glacial pace, so we started doing them again over the network.

So, in step two here, take that Text Edit document of all the glorious things you can accomplish with a home network and dedicated server hardware, and see if you really need to do it all.

Part Three: What do you have? Reutilization of existing computers is a really compelling thing. A home server is easy, and mandates nearly no spousal negotiation, if you're taking idle hardware.

Got a Core Duo Mac mini? After you've blown the sticky dust out of it and you've done this with that run of mini, right?

Like I mentioned before, we had a Mac Pro 1,1 sitting about. Four drive slots we supplemented with a SATA card and a bracket for the optical bay to cram it absolutely full of hard drives. However, that's still way cheaper than a new Mac mini would be, if a bit bulky.

There are some commonalities between the two machines I've mentioned —there are some upgrade paths. The Core Duo mini can be re-cored to a Core 2 Duo with some finesse required, and perhaps a new processor heat sink standoff or two.

The 1,1 Mac Pro can be and was! Other Mac Pro models have different upgrade options for processors, with the last 5,1 capable of core processing. Obviously, the Mac Pro can take better array of drives than the mini can internally.

Preview (macOS)

More modern machines can't really take upgrades or more internal drives gracefully, and you'll be better off hanging externals off of them through whatever high-speed interface you can muster. USB 2. Do you have a MacBook Air with a broken display? Think really thin Mac mini. How about an iMac with a wacky LCD that works okay otherwise? You could either get inventive and root around inside, or hang a piece of cardboard over the blinky monitor.

Now, it's time to reconcile. Compare what you have to what you've decided you need in part two.

That Core Duo Mac mini? Perfect for LAN streaming without on-the-fly transcoding. That original Mac Pro, even not re-cored?

Works great for video streaming with transcoding —but I recommend the re-core, if you're even moderately handy and technical. They'll both perform Time Machine duties, as well as file serving on the network just fine.

Initial setup If you're come this far, you're already on board, and have some basic knowledge already. You may be thinking about just configuring it headless from the start. Perform the initial setup with a monitor attached, and not headless.

I don't care what you use, but until you've got a handle on this, eliminate a large number of setup variables by doing initial configuration on a display. That said, the ultimate goal is to toss the server someplace, and basically forget it.

Unless you've connected it to a television for media playback directly, that is. Not all is well in OS X land for headless devices, or computers without a display connected before Mavericks.


Some video cards play nice, but Mac minis in particular don't. GPU acceleration is off by default on headless Mac minis, but there's a way around this with a plug that fools the computer into believing a monitor is attached.. Local Area Network configuration From a physical perspective, don't serve from wi-fi and use the Ethernet port.

Position it on the wired part of your network as close as possible to the most traffic —for most scenarios, this means it will be connected directly off your router. I've found that even with the rest of the network getting IP addresses assigned, the server really should have a static IP address. My server has been on x. The high trailing digit is generally outside of DHCP allocation ranges, so no problems there.

Pick what you will, but I recommend above. User accounts If you grant everybody root access, it's ultimately going to go very badly, with files scattered willy-nilly all over your carefully maintained hard drives. Starting with OS X Every frequent file sharing user should have their own user account on the server, with a unique password. This will grant private access to the user's shared folder, and you, as the administrator, can tailor other folder access at your whim using the sharing control panel.

Then, on the server, connect that iTunes to the library, and you're already good to go. When you choose a location for the iTunes library, be aware that this can get pretty large over time, so plan ahead! For newer versions click here. Step 2 — Add in the extra pages. There are 2 ways to do this. It will prompt you to select a file, it can be a pdf or an image such as a jpg.

It will put the new file after the currently selected page of the pdf file.

Preview (macOS)

You can insert a file to any pdf document from the Edit menu! These previews are called thumbnails.Well, bitcode with a small b- is an architecture-specific intermediate representation used by LLVM, and capital-B Bitcode pertains to a set of features allowing you to embed this representation in your Mach-O binary and the mechanisms by which you can provide it to Apple in your App Store submissions. Fine, just get the right applications and hardware going. The tool is an excellent one to use for general maintenance as well, including picture renaming and other similar needs.

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Compose a new email message in Mail and drag in a large attachment as mentioned above. Additionally, a Plex server can stream media to set top boxes other than an Apple TV, so that's a giant plus. Will this transition be painful for Apple? Contact the server administrator. Preview can encrypt PDF documents, and restrict their use; for example, it is possible to save an encrypted PDF so that a password is required to copy data from the document, or to print it. I use MetaZ. With macOS