This paper seeks to introduce the idea that space and identity are closely linked. In the analysis of Peter Abrahams’ text Mine Boy (), the identity of the mine workers is closely aligned to the spaces they occupy. Critical race theory and post-colonial theory will be used in. Get this from a library! Mine boy. [Peter Abrahams]. The discovery of gold on the Witwatersrand; the people of the mining towns; improved transport; a 'Mine Boy' by Peter Abrahams. CHAPTER 12 – THE.

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Mine Boy is a novel by South African novelist Peter Abrahams. Set in South Africa, the ResearchGate. Retrieved (PDF download available). Xuma experiences police brutality as an innocent bystander. The only place where Xuma can regard himself as a man is deep within the bowels of the mine, far. Just Half Mile to Beach on Larsen Lake and Tucked Away in the Trees and Natural Landscaping further mine boy! From the screams outside, all the same mine.

There is no area of our lives which has not been affected by the social, political and expansionist needs of European capitalism from that of the reluctant African, driven by whips and gun powder to work on the cotton plantations of America, the rubber plantations in the Congo, the gold and diamond mines in Southern Africa to that of the modern African worker spending his meagre hard-earned income on imported cars and other goods razor blades and Coca Cola even to bolster the same Western industries that got off the ground on the backs of his peasant ancestors and on the plunder of a Continent By , when the Nationalist party came to power in South Africa, the economic picture changed, Black workers were flocking to the towns.

Africans were excluded from established universities. They were prevented from attending white church services. The population register fixed the racial divisions in a manner not quite constant with biological fact.

A small portion of African hovered near the borderline of the coloured race while a small portion of whites could pass of as coloured. Passing had been possible in these cases, usually at the cost of permanent separation from the family. In , legislation was passed prohibiting this.

Douglas Brown in Against the World puts it. The price they paid was the astonishment of the world that any state should turn a human weakness into a national policy Any term will do so long as the Africa is depersonalized and dehumanized 7. In , the African National Congress, with the support of a few whites, started it passive resistance campaign.

Their objective was to reduce apartheid to absurdity by making it ineffective at the lower levels. Minor breaches in the apartheid regulations were made. They passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act, , which made even a trivial law breaking a major offence.

The punishment could be any two of the following — a fine of three hundred pounds, imprisonment for three years or a whipping of ten strokes. The African National Congress found a rival in the more militant Pan African Congress, which drifted away from the creed of non-violence and resolved to attack apartheid at its fundamental level, the Pass Laws. Douglas Brown in Against the World assails: It decided to assail not so much the principle of segregation as the machinery that made it possible; because if the black serfs all destroyed their passes they would become like cattle without brand marks, an amorphous mass no longer subject to movement control In , this pass system had been extended to women.

Her dignity was affronted; she felt herself dependent not on her man but on the state machinery.

Table of contents

Protests were organized and hundreds courted arrest. African men and women decided to move about without their passes and surrender themselves at the nearest police station. Emergency was declared in many part of South Africa as a repressive measure. Riots followed all over the country but they were ruthlessly suppressed.

For as long as a few exercise power over many, there will always be injustices. Their condition can be related to the Pass System. Because Xuma is new to the city and his African values are still intact, his perceptions of the township and the mines enable the reader to register the full strangeness of the black urban experience.

Black Oppression in Preceeding Apartheid as Depicted in Mine Boy

Divorced from any naturalizing inevitability, it is revealed as the product of a specific history that can be unmade by human intervention. For Xuma to reach the awareness of this possibility requires that he goes through a political education that takes up a large part of the progress of the novel.

Their advice prompts him to begin his interrogation of such self-restricting assumptions. His encounter with the black middle-class Dr.

The warmth in the air even on a cold night. The warmth of living bodies; of living, breathing, moving people, a warmth that was richer than the air and the earth and the sun.

Richer than all things. The warmth of life, throbbing. Of hearts pounding. Of silence and of sound. Of movement and of lack of movement. A warm, thick, dark blanket of life. That was Malay Camp.

Summery for Mine Boy Essay

Something nameless and living. A stream of dark life Here for the first time Xuma sees a nascent humanity amongst the oppressed, in contrast to the despairing perceptions he had had earlier in the novel. From being someone who had largely accepted the racist structures imposed by whites, he now recognizes a common humanity shared by all South Africans, an ideological development that will enable him to challenge the oppression of the black working-class.

In turning to the political themes developed in the novel, it is worth examining the portrait of the black middle-class as represented by Eliza and Dr. Eliza is a teacher who is torn between her love for Xuma and other more pressing aspirations. And it is because I want the things of the white people. I want to be like the white people and go where they go and do the things they do and I am black. I cannot help it.

Inside I am not black and I do not want to be a black person It has alienated her from black proletarian society. It is therefore inadequate to say that Eliza displays the inevitable contradictions of an educated black person in a society where the vast majority of her people are denied an education.

His commitment to his class is therefore total. Xuma is told in Mine Boy when he comes to Johannesburg. I like you because you are here but you are not here …….. I am here, you see, I came from my people but I am no longer of my people. It is so in the city …… the city makes you strange to the ways of your people, you see?

Williamson, when he is drunk and Maisey comprise the new city family Xuma inherits. They teach the newcomer how to protect himself, listen to his spurts of nostalgia about the countryside, and teach him how to see and hear in this new place.

Together, the group laughs, and cries; its members share victories and defeats. What Abrahams shows us is the phenomenal emotional feat of migrants reconstructing bonds of meaning. Though they are told to be competitive, individualistic, and private, they find these values unnatural and strive to establish a new hierarchy of values for which there are no rewards from the dominant white culture. The urban industrial environment is immediately antagonistic, threatening, intimidating and alienating.

This environment belittles people, pushes them to the periphery rather than placing them at the centre of activity. Like the eyes of the sheep hat did not know where to run when the dog barked Though the work place exudes its own danger and threats, some already broken by their years of work on the job stand a symbol to the excruciating effects of industrialization.

Abrahams uses his character Johannes in the same fashion although Johannes introduces Xuma to the Johannesburg mines with silence the behaviour required in the mines.

Abrahams describes the lack of intensified commitment in the black middle class as we see a defeated air hangs over Dr. This consolidates the point Abrahams is making whether they try to help their people in a philanthropic manner in their professional capacity as doctors or teachers or suffers an overwhelming identity crisis, what members of the black middle-class have in common with each other is their political neutralization.

Such a critique strikes deeply at the pre-war dominant liberal strategy, which, as we have seen, regarded the creation of a black middle-class as a key element in its cautious politics of reform. For Abrahams, who saw little reform and much of its opposite in the rise of Afrikaner nationalism, this strategy, like Dr. Mini himself, is hopelessly ineffectual. The focus of the novel is elsewhere, on the black working-class. The shift is away from the weaknesses and contradictions of the white, middle-class milieu of Song of the City to a politics unencumbered by the restraining claims of a discredited project in Mine Boy.

Michael Wade in Peter Abrahams forcefully argues that: Mine Boy is a proletarian novel whose plot displays a Marxist perspective on life. It is proletarian in the sense that it is about members of the working class and consciously stresses the idea that the conflicts and difficulties of the Africans in town life in South Africa have their basis in the class struggle.

It contends that the problems of white workers are fundamentally similar. These two groups share a common interest; when they recognize this and act together they will overcome their problems Xuma pits his strength against the mine.

A truckload would go and another would come from the bowels of the earth and another would go. According to Nigerian scholar Kolawole Ogungbesan, Mine Boy became "the first African novel written in English to attract international attention. The plot follows a black miner, Xuma, as he goes through a number of struggles, including introduced disease from Europeans as well as political and social trauma.

Leah, an illegal beer brewer, gives him a place to live. Xuma is against the racist treatment of black Africans and fights it. Xuma becomes a successful miner, working for the supervisor Paddy. One of Leah's tenants, Johannes, and others, die in a mine accident and Xuma and Paddy lead a strike. Critic Sally-Anne Jackson focuses on the novel's thematic interest in the disease and trauma introduced by colonial rule.

Summers notes that the book does not mention "same sex pairings among migrant laborers" in the mines, although the practice of young men and boys becoming "wives of the mine" with older men is well known, and documented back to the s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For the hockey player nicknamed Mine Boy, see Alex Levinsky. Hidden categories: All stub articles. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Languages Add links. This page was last edited on 19 February , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

This article about a South African novel is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. Further suggestions might be found on the article's talk page.Print Wade, Michael. It was so and he was at home and at ease underground They passed the Criminal Law Amendment Act, , which made even a trivial law breaking a major offence.

Ellison bookended the or. This is a list of compositions by Reynaldo Hahn sorted by genre, date of composition, titles and scoring. Set in South Africa , the novel explores the stereotypes and institutions that discriminate against working-class black Africans.

You must be a man first and then a black man. They teach the newcomer how to protect himself, listen to his spurts of nostalgia about the countryside, and teach him how to see and hear in this new place. Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Lists of comedy television series episodes Revolvy Brain revolvybrain Television episodes Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.